Useful Data - Change Management
Change Management Models
There are a number of potential models for change to use that we can apply to use as a process for change.
Lewin’s Three Stage Model
- Unfreeze; change; freeze.
Kotter’s Eight Stage Model
- Needs: Urgency, Vision, empowerment, quick wins, ongoing building on the change, make it stick
Senge’s Systems Thinking Model
- Optimistic stuff. A shared Vision; Mental Models; Team Learning; Personal Mastery (4) and System Thinking (5). The fifth Discipline, System Thinking, is the one discipline that binds the other four and therefore the discipline where the focus of Change Management should be.
McKinsey 7-S Model
- Seems appropriate for creating an organisation, department or service.
ADKAR Change Management Model
- Uses Awareness, Desire, Knowledge, Ability, Reinforcement. More to do with changing an organisation.
- Suitable for lots of small behavioural changes in a population.
Bridges’ Transition Model
- Endings; Neutral Zone; New Beginnings. Suitable for managing employees in a department through a single very big change.
Kübler-Ross Change Management Framework
- The management of grief stages, reworked into a business context. E.g. Denial, Anger, Bargaining, Depression, Acceptance. Or Shock, Anger, Rejection, Acceptance.
Maurer’s 3 Levels of Resistance and Change Model
- “I don’t get it. I don’t like it. I don’t like you.” May well be appropriate for predicting how staff will react.
The Deming Cycle
- Plan, Do, Check, Act. A working practice. One can expect to be going round that circle many times. Just something to keep in mind.
Satir Change Management Model
- For recognising and reporting the performance dip and recovery in change. Late Status Quo; Resistance; Chaos; Integration; New Status Quo. Just to be aware of. Some things might get worse as we try to make them better, such as productivity dropping as processes are embedded.
Kaizen Change Management Model
- Works well with business-as-usual in an operational environment.
LaMarsh Change Management Model
- A general purpose one-size-fits-all risk-based approach. Initiate change; Identify risk; Implementation; Achieve results; Sustain outcomes. Deal with the greatest risks first to make everything else runs smoothly later.
Three ways to manage change
Reactive = respond to change
Anticipatory = try to see it coming and prepare for it
Proactive = drive it yourself
All three are relevant and useful approaches. All three should / could be used.
The scale of ambition
Incremental = make improvements to what exists
Transformational = new ways of working
Both extremes are achievable and useful approaches.
Target realistically and optimistically: do not over-stretch but do not be under-ambitious.
Know your capabilities but know your limitations.
Emergent change = comes out of the blue
Planned change = from a deliberate policy or strategy
Only the former is guaranteed.
Either can fail.
Types of change management method
Developmental = steady progress from before to after. e.g. from child to adult. Growth. Appearance changes.
Transitional = dismantle the old while building the new e.g. from caterpillar to butterfly. New systems. The work changes.
Transformational = fundamental new way of thinking and being e.g. from fields to factories. New environment. Everything changes.